Plants appear to form a species complex. Plants small to medium in size. Cells of leaf lobe thick-walled with sinuous walls. Underleaves small with entire shoulders or occasionally toothed, distantly spaced. Perianth with smooth surface and keel, or rarely with surface ornamentation.
Conrad, H., & Redfearn, Jr., P. (1979). How to know the mosses and liverworts. (2nd ed.). Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.
Crum, H. (1991). Liverworts and mosses of Southern Michigan. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.